Land War

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  • 1878-1909, a period of agitation in rural Ireland in the late 19th century aiming to redistribute land from landlords to tenants, especially from absentee landlords.

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Land War

Land War

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Land War

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Land War

9 Archival description results for Land War

9 results directly related Exclude narrower terms

Annual Report 1880

Annual report, accounts and rental for year ending June 1880, wherein Digby contrasts the Geashill estate favourably with other estates in the country during this 'almost unprecedented agricultural disaster of the past season'. Reports that although the usual remittance is reduced by £1500 due to increased arrears, there was an overall net increase in rental income at £17,307.1.8.

Reports that there is an increase in the number of unskilled labour available and therefore more drainage works and land improvement projects were carried out with the result that there was hardly a person on the estate in want of work compared with other parts of Ireland where there was great distress and beginnings of famine. Notes that many of the projects are being executed under the Board of Works. To offset any failure of the potato crop on the estate, Digby reports that he has imported 50 tonnes of champion seed potatoes from Scotland and distributed among the tenantry.

Construction works included a pair of double cottages at Killeigh; a further addition to Thomas Cobbe's farmhouse at Annagharvey; a labourer's cottage for Mr Delamere at the Meelaghans; and the repair of the roof and offices at Ballymooney House. Forestry works included clearing and replanting of Scrubb Wood and new plantations at Gorteen and Derryadd.

Notes that the past year will long be remembered by every landlord and tenant 'as one of the most disastrous ever experienced', with bad weather, failure of root crops, and 'a potato crop more diseased than any since the famine years.' Warns that the Land League have seized upon the bad harvest as a means to increase agitation amongst tenants and have organised meetings the length and breadth of Ireland, and hopes that forthcoming legislation by the government will solve the Irish Land Question.

Annual Report 1881

Annual report, accounts and rental for year ending June 1881. Reports that the financial condition of the estate had disimproved, outstanding arrears remaining due and abandoned arrears considerably increased. Profit remitted was £8500, a decrease on previous years, although there was a net increase in the overall rental income. Also reports that the Roskeen lease was surrendered by the reps of Mr. Bailey, and that the farm at Ballydownan was surrendered by Mr Adams and now in Lord Digby's hands and set for grazing with newly purchased cattle.

In terms of land improvement, Digby reports on the completion of a number of Board of Works projects including the draining and squaring of the moors under Scrubb Wood, the deepening of the boundary stream at Cappancur and the sinking of a large main drain in Balinvally bog. Construction works included new offices for Mr Arthur of Killurin and Patrick Nugent of Ballycollin; new cottages completed at Killeigh; new cottage commenced in Geashill Village and assistance give to William Mathews to erect substantial new dwelling house in Killurin. Also reports on the thinning and replanting of Derrygunnigan Wood.

Warns that agrarian agitation is increasing encouraged by the Land League. Blames the Government for slow response to agitation. Reports on a 'monster meeting' held in Tullamore by the Land League prior to the winter collection of rents (1880) where the Geashill tenantry requested en masse Griffith's Valuation as a fair rent which was subsequently refused by Lord Digby, but who abated the rent by 10% on the half year's rent payable. Identifies William Adams as the leader of the agitation and describes the court proceedings taken against him individually. With the result of being faced with bankruptcy, Adams paid his rent and then surrendered farm at Ballydownan, with the result that all other agitation on the estate ceased and rents were collected within three weeks. Also refers to 'boycotting' occurring throughout the estate but that no acts of violence or outrages took place. A further attempt at withholding rent in May 1881 was similarly short-lived.

Annual Report 1882

Annual report, accounts and rental for year ending June 1882. Remarking on the 'extraordinary events in Ireland of the last 12 months', Digby reports that consequently there is a large amount of arrears, including abandoned arrears which are mainly the rents of Ballydownan and Roskeen farms which are in Lord Digby's hands having been surrendered.

Land improvements have ceased due to the suspension of rent and the generally disorganised state of the country, a new dwelling house for William Payne, Killeenmore being the chief expenditure. Thirty acres of young plantations in Derrygunnigan and Newtown woods and the maintenance of other young plantations accounted for expenditure in forestry.

Warns that the country is in a 'frightful crisis' and reports on the tactics of the Land League with their 'No Rent' manifesto (Autumn 1881), which was eagerly adopted and led to a complete suspension of the payment of rent. After an abatement was refused, tenantry on the Geashill Estate held a meeting in Killeigh in January 1882 at which a resolution was passed not to pay rent unless abatements were conceded. Proceedings were issued against nine of the principal agitators, their properties seized and put up for public auction in Tullamore. Digby reports that in seven cases, the tenants allowed him to be the purchaser, and in the other two cases, the tenants bought in their farms for the full amount of rent claimed and costs. Evictions followed, five of which required the aid of 'a large force of military and police and bailiffs supplied by the Property Defence Association.'

Annual Report 1883

Annual report, accounts and rental for year ending June 1883, describing a considerable improvement in the financial situation with a large drop in arrears outstanding due to the Arrears Act of 1882. Reports that abandoned and boycotted farms now account for 850 statute acres of land in Lord Digby's hands set for temporary grazing and necessitating the purchase of cattle. Also reports that despite a decrease in the net rental due to the action of the Land Commission Courts and voluntary reduction of rents, it was possible to remit profits of £11,500. No land improvements or works were carried out, but 50 acres of replanting was carried out at Derrygunnigan Wood, River Wood at Clonad and Derrygolan.

Describes a general improvement in the condition of the estate and attributes the cessation of agitation to the Prevention of Crimes Act brought in following the Phoenix Park murders in spring 1882.

Annual Report 1886

Annual report, accounts and rental for year ending June 1886, showing a further reduction in the gross rental received by £152.13.0 and noting a considerable increase in arrears outstanding mainly attributable to the continued and intensified depression in the value of almost all kind of stock and farm produce, recent proposed legislation and a renewed demand for alteration of land laws. Forestry works consisted of 20 acres planted in Derryclure Wood and Scrubb Wood.

Describes a further agitation at the winter collection of rents (1885) with the object of procuring an abatement of rents that have been recently judicially fixed. Also describes the 'great excitement' among the tenantry derived from the Home Rule movement and the Parnellite party.

Annual Report 1887

Annual report, accounts and rental for year ending June 1887, showing a small decrease in rent, a moderate increase in arrears which Digby blames on a 'grave agricultural depression'. Abandoned arrears are high with much of this land consisting of boycotted farms and lands now 'on hand' following surrender. Principal amounts of expenditure is for forestry at Scrubb Wood and Derryadd, which he points out led to a large amount of employment in the reach of small tenants and labourers on the estate who must otherwise have suffered from enforced idleness. Describes a 'half-hearted' agitation against the payment of any more rent than the National League authorities advised. Also notes that meetings were held before the winter collection of rents and a proposal to inaugurate the League's 'Plan of Campaign' was not successful.

Annual Report 1888

Annual report, accounts and rental for year ending June 1888, showing a very large increase in outstanding arrears and abandoned arrears, and a consequent decrease in the amount remitted to Lord Digby. Describes a marked improvement in the 'moral condition' of the country which he attributes to the 'resolute policy' of the present government. Also notes the declining influence of the National League , and that this was the first year no meeting was held to agitate for the reduction of rent. Also warns that the financial position of the tenants is most serious due to a disastrous season with a long drought.

General political and patronage correspondence of the fourth and fifth earls

Includes letters about Disestablishment, Poor Law reform, Orangeism, Conservative registration, Home Rule and the Irish Land question. Also includes letter from M. McCormack, CC, Kinnitty to Lord Rosse concerning agrarian dispute in Kinnitty parish between Francis Foley and Delaney at Newtown (3 March 1911).

Parsons, Laurence, 4th Earl of Rosse

Minute Book 1888-1919

Leather bound minute book of the King’s County Infirmary board of management meetings. Minutes contain the proceedings of meetings such as the overview of the patient admissions and discharges, suppliers of provisions and statements of accounts. Records decisions regarding the hiring and managing of staff, complaints, fees for patients, and building repairs and improvements. Includes occasional notes on specific patients and transcription of correspondence to various bodies including the County Council and notes of thanks to various donors such as the Countess of Rosse from 1895-1905. Other items discussed were the implementation of a new surgical theatre in 1909 and a tuberculosis sanitorium in 1913.

Prominent members of the Board include Rev. Graham Craig, Rev. Maxwell Coote, Reginald Digby, Joshua C Goodbody, J Perry Goodbody, Lewis Goodbody, John Tarleton, Henry Egan, Rev. P Callery, and Rev R.S. Craig, Dr George Ridley. Registrar: Hugh T Love

The first entry in the minute book records a special meeting of the governors in which they appoint a new surgeon to the infirmary following the death of Dr James Ridley. Ridley who also acted as the Tullamore Jail Physician was reported to have died by suicide on the morning he was due to give evidence in court regarding the harsh treatment of John Mandeville, a national league activist who was imprisoned under the Irish Crimes Act in 1887.

A meeting in February 1900 discussed the dismissal of two servants and the cook for gross misconduct after admitting two male patients to their bedroom.

The hospital surgeon Dr Meagher (appointed in 1906 following the death of Dr George Ridley) served in the Royal Medical Corp during WW1 between 1914-1915.