Agriculture

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Agriculture

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Agriculture

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Agriculture

63 Archival description results for Agriculture

11 results directly related Exclude narrower terms

1872-1876.

  • IE OCL P131/2/2/1/2
  • File
  • 2 January 1872- December 1876
  • Part of Loughton Papers

Letters sent to and sent from Henry Trench, Cangort Park, Roscrea, Tipperary between 1872 and 1876. The letters within this file deal with personal, community and financial issues.

Examples of personal letters include a letter dated 14 August 1873 which arranges for turf to be sent to Loughton for turf Lord Bloomfield's visit; a letter dated 5 July 1873 from Mr. Taylor regarding Mrs. Francis Hastings Toone's will and a letter from John Harden dated 5 August 1873 in regards to staying at Cangort.

Community issues are also present throughout the letters within the file. Examples of such letters include a letter from J.W Waller, Belfield, Shinrone, King's County in which he writes about Shannon drainage; a letter from Mr Bard, Shinrone regarding admitting Mrs St Ledger to the poorhouse and a five copies of a letter from 1875 from Henry Trench, Cangort Park, Roscrea to W.R. Le Fanu, Commissioner of public work regarding the river Shannon and a memorandum from Henry Trench to W. Harden.

The file also deals with financial issues. Examples include a 1876 a letter from the Grattan monument committee stating that Henry did not pay his subscription and a letter dated 4 January 1876 from Theo Ryan, 7 Leeson Park, Dublin asking for rent

1877-1879.

  • IE OCL P131/2/2/1/3
  • File
  • 3 January 1877-13 September 1879
  • Part of Loughton Papers

File of letters sent to Henry Trench between 1877 and 1879.

The file contains letters sent by family, friends, business contacts and acquaintances. Examples of letters include a 1877 letter from D.A M'Cready regarding five leases that require Henry's signature; three letters dated 1878 from E Williams, Main Street, Parsonstown regarding Japanese trays and a letter from K.L Kirkpatrick thanking Henry for sending him a pedigree and a letter from J.A Davis, Kilcoleman parsonage, Parsonstown regarding forwarding an application to the Lord Bishop and Rural Dean .

The majority of the letters sent in 1879 were concerned with issues such as Shannon Drainage and leasing property. Examples of such letters include a letter from G Weston, 32 Essex Street, Strand, London, regarding clay work; a letter containing a copy of 'Hydraulic tables, coefficients, and formulae for finding the discharge of water from orifices, notches, weirs, pipes and rivers' by John Neville and a draft lease property in Banagher sent to George Arthur Waller for sixty one years.

Annual Report 1858

First full report submitted by the Trenchs to Lord Digby. Contains a detailed examination of the 'compensation fund' granted by George Wingfield Digby to the leaseholders to indemnify them for the loss of their several leases, which had been illegally granted to them by the previous earl and which the current earl would like to break. Also includes a memorandum describing in great detail, the meeting between Trench and the leaseholders, to discuss the terms of the compensation. Also includes report on the 'mesne' or first-year rates with a full list of the tenants. Also includes 'sundry observations' on the management of the estate 'during the difficult & trying period of our first year of office.' Describes how the 'tenants-at-will' were invited to settle arrears and there was 'a vast amount of dissatisfaction amongst the tenantry.' W. S. Trench describes the discovery of an assassination plot to murder one or other of the Trenchs is underfoot, leading T. W. Trench to travel over the estate accompanied by a policeman and the estate bailiff, with a loaded gun in his hand. Also discusses the commencement of the construction of new labourers cottages; the building of a new estate office adjoining the church; the drainage of the bogs; and a report on emigration from the estate.

Annual Report 1859

Annual report for year ending July 1859, including a list of leasholders and undertenants who have surrendered their several leases; general account of income and expenditure; detailed statements of disbursements including costs of drainage and building improvements; a list for compensation for surrender of tenancies and emigration; and a detailed rental of entire estate.

Contains a summary report outlining the mechanism of the leaseholder's compensation fund, the distribution of which, W. S. Trench describes as 'the most arduous and most serious task of responsibility I have ever had to encounter.' Also discusses estate improvements such as the drainage of 125 statute acres, particularly in Meelaghans where 100 acres 'of miserable cut away bog' was drained and cultivated. Also discusses improvements to the labourers' cottages through the additions of chimneys and windows and a proposal to enter the new cottages for the award of the Gold Medal offered by the Royal Agricultural Society. Further estate improvements include new roads through Killellery, Lugmore and Meelaghans.

Agrarian unrest is also discussed in the context of the case of Henry Kane, tenant, who along with his brother, Michael Kane, each held a farm in Killurin. On the death of Michael, Henry took immediate posssession of his brother's farm, to which the Trenchs objected. Report discusses general tenant support for Kane, even from outside the estate, and includes descriptions of intimidatory tactics by Ribbonmen. Also discusses measures to have Henry Kane ejected from the land altogether.

Drawings in the report include:
Page 2: 'Ancient pan found on Geashill Estate, 4 feet broad x 14 inches deep' (The Geashill Cauldron)
Page 11: 'Ancient keg of butter found 12ft below surface of Red Bog. 2 feet long x 13 inches broad.'

Annual Report 1860

Annual report for year ending June 1860 containing details of the leaseholder's compensation fund, the executors' arrears, mesne rates, new rentals and the purchase of leases. Also discusses estate improvements: permanent land improvement at Meelaghans; the creation of turf banks at Colehill; management of woods and plantations at Scrubb Wood, Killeenmore and Derryweelan ('Furry Hill'); and the building of roads and bridges at Clonad and Derryclure. Particularly refers to the 'model farm' which has been established at Ballyknockan.

In relation to the construction of houses, the report describes the completion of Richard Odlum's offices in Ballyduff, 'one of the most independent and thriving farmers on a large scale on the estate.' Also discusses Odlum's house in Ballymooney to be near completion. Reports that cottages in Killeigh and the new rent offices are complete 'and ought to last forever'. Referring to dire housing conditions amongst some of the tenantry, the report justifies the expense on rebuilding houses and states that there was more than one case on the estate 'where the inhabitants were in daily danger of being buried alive.' Also reports on small repairs to existing tenants' houses and a scheme of compensation for 59 families to surrender certain tenancies.

Also reports on agrarian unrest and agitation by Ribbonmen on the estate, including arson attacks on Geashill Castle offices and outhouses, and an arson attack on the farm of Mrs. Pattison, Protestant tenant at Annagharvey. Appendix contains copy letter from John Townsend Trench, second son of W. S. Trench, who interviewed Mary Shea, barmaid of the Cross Keys public house, Geashill, at the barracks in Tullamore where she was being held for her own safety. Letter describes plot to assassinate T. W. Trench and lists the main Ribbonmen active in Geashill as told to J. T. Trench: Loughlin Kelly ('treasurer of the murder fund'), Henry Bryan of Cross Keys public house; John Whelaghan, John Helian, William Grumly, Ned Geraghty, Christopher Mooney, Johnny Clibborn and others.

Drawing on pg 151:
Sign language or secret signals of the Ribbonmen

Annual Report 1861

Annual report for year ending June 1861 containing details of executors' arrears, mesne rates, new rentals, estate improvements and general observations on the management of the estate. In terms of estate improvements, the report details drainage schemes including the completion of the reclamation of the land at Meelaghans and new schemes at Ballyknockan, and Ballina. Also includes details of roads built from Clonad to Derryfad and from Ballyknockan Bridge to Knockbally. Reports that the Royal Agricultural Society of Ireland awarded provincial prize of the gold medal to Lord Digby for the greatest number of improved cottages in the province of Leinster. Also reports on improvements to the Castle including the conversion of the old ball room to a parlour and drawing room.

Regarding the general management of the estate, Trench reports on 'improved tone and feeling' on the estate with new houses and improved layout appreciated by tenantry. Considers the area still backward in terms of agriculture but improving. Very dissatisfied with the police authorities in the district and reports that 6 murders took place in King's County, 2 of the most barbarous in Geashill. Also updates Lord Digby on the situation with Ribbonmen on the estate. Reports that eight active Ribbonmen have been ejected from the estate: Loughlin Kelly (Ballina), Henry Bryan (Cross Keys public house), John Clibborn (Clonmore), John Helian (Killurin), Darby Flanagan (Pigeonhouse), John Whelaghan (Newtown), Patrick Larkin (Colehill) and William Grumley (Dalgan).

Drawings in report:
Page 119 'Thoro or main drain' diagram
Page 120 Diagrams for drain and outlet for drains
Page 125 Diagrams of drains and thoro drainage
Page 129 Map of estate drainage

Annual Report 1862

Annual report for year ending June 1862 containing details of the rental of the estate and the consequent worsening financial situation. Explains that rental income has decreased due to the inability of the tenants to meet their rent following the bad harvest of the previous year. Also discusses drainage and land improvements at Ballyknockan, Annagharvey, Ballyduff, Ballydownan and Colehill. In terms of buildings, the report discusses construction of a new school house at Geashill and minor repairs to existing tenants' houses. Referring to the number of tenants on the estate, the report suggests that there are too many for advantageous farming and discusses compensation scheme for emigration. Reports that 807 tenants have left in the last five years and 142 houses were levelled.

Referring to the threat from Ribbonmen, the report warns that Lord Digby is set to lose two of his best tenants, Mr Denning, bank manager of Bank of Ireland, Tullamore and Mr Dowling, attorney, Tullamore due to sustained intimidation by Ribbonmen. Appendix contains copies of letters from both men setting out their situation. Appendix also cotnains report on the woods and forests by forester Daniel Dewar.

Drawings in report:
Page 1 Drawing of cottage and yard with tenants and animals
Page 5 Drawing of large farmhouse with adjoining field being ploughed.
Page 8 Drawing of the new schoolhouse
Page 10 Drawing of Scrubb Wood before and after thinning
Page 12 Drawing of a ship sailing from the coast (emigration)
Page 105 Map of Ballycollin

Annual Report 1863

Annual report for year ending June 1863 containing details of rental and general management of the estate. Includes a general report describing the failure of the 1862 harvest and the subsequent loss of rental income, including the complete abandonment of arrears in many cases. Regrets that funds were not sufficient to entice tenants to emigrate as many small and middle farmers were 'compelled to stay half starving on their land, unable to pay rent or crop the ground, or to emigrate to another land, and barely able to support life on the miserable produce of the soil'.

Also discusses the completion of drainage works at Meelaghans, now let to Mr Goodbody of Tullamore, and at Ballyknockan, now let to Mr. Ridgeway. Referring to building works, the main project was the building of the new school house at Geashill. Other new buildings include the Castle offices to replace those previously burnt. Reports on the new forester, Daniel Dewer, who has had success in making the woods and plantations profitable, in particular at Clonad.

Annual Report 1864

Annual report for year ending June 1864 containing details of the rental of the estate and the financial situation relating to the payment of rent. Explains that while the 1863 harvest was an improvement on previous years, it was not enough to ease arrears of rent and that the most impoverished on the estate had even sold their milch cows. Reports that large farms have best withstood the pressure of the previous seasons, middle and small farmers suffered the most, and the labouring classes did not suffer too much as they gained much employment in the drainage works at Ballycollin.

Reports on other large drainage works one one side of the Tullamore Road at Geashill, a large tract of land mainly made up of the farms of surrendered tenants. Also discusses farming and waste farms - 227 acres at Ballycollin and 34 acres at Bawnmore are now under tillage. Referring to the estate buildings, the report discusses improvements to the castle offices, construction of farm offices required by larger tenants, construction of a house for the drainage superintendent and the general poor condition of the village of Killeigh. Also includes a report by forester, Daniel Dewar, on woods and plantations. Further reports that Dewar will be leaving the estate as he was sought by Lord Lovat for a superior position.

Regarding emigration, the report suggests that not as much emigration as anticipated has occurred on the estate due to the 'vigorous opposition from priests', but does report that a considerable number of middle-sized farmers have been compelled to leave the estate for economic reasons.

Drawings in report:
Page 89 'Ancient Monastery Killeigh' - window opes

Annual Report 1865

Annual report for year ending 1865 containing details of the rental of the estate and the slow recovery of the financial situation. Describes the low level of emigration from the estate in comparison to the rest of Ireland. Also describes drainage and land improvements at Ballyknockan, Ballycollin and Annagharvey, and at the new farm known as 'The Prairie.' Reports on tillage of corn and the sowing of grain, rape, grass-seed and potatoes.

Reports on the transformation of the village of Killeigh from a state where peripheral houses had already fallen in and the houses on the main street had become too dangerous and too exposed to the weather to live in, to newly built cottages which were entered for competition of Gold Medal of the Royal Agricultural Society of Ireland for the best cottages in the province of Leinster and also won the challenge cup offered by the Duke of Leinster. Other buildings include a new house for the miller at Killeigh and Odlum of Ballymooney required extensive additions to his premises. A long range of offices were built for Mr Denning in Cappancur and a new forge was built in Ballinagar.

Also reports on the clearance of Clonad Woods and the purchase of an interest in a considerable plantation in Ballydownan. Regarding threats from Ribbonmen, the report states that Killurin is now the only part of the estate subject to outrages, chiefly of the robberies of foresters of the estate. Also reports that emigration rates have fallen and only sons and daughters of small farmers are leaving for America to join other family members.

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